Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavior problem this is certainly described as hyperactivity, inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity and, until recently, was diagnosed primarily in kids. It was first thought as Hyperkinetic Disorder of Childhood in 1957 and was often called hyperactivity or hyperactive syndrome until it had been renamed ADHD in 1987. The renaming also represented a shift in focus from hyperactive behavior to the inattention as a major characteristic regarding the disorder.
In the usa the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates 7 percent of school-age (6-10) children have ADHD, with a ratio of 3 to at least one boys to girls. White children are apt to have higher rates of ADHD diagnosis than minority children. The definition of ADHD has broadened in recent years. Now, in addition to school-age children, ADHD is diagnosed in preschool children, adolescents, and adults, which plays a role in the prevalence that is rising.
The most common treatment that is medical ADHD is by using psychoactive medications, especially ethyl-phenidate (Ritalin) as well as other stimulant medications (Cylert, Adderall, and Concerta). Treatment rates have increased enormously in recent years; in 2004 the Department of Health and Human Services estimated 5 million children ages 5 to 17 were treated for ADHD in 2000-02, up from 2.6 million in 1994. The treatment and diagnosis of ADHD is a lot higher in america than in other countries, but evidence implies that since the 1990s it’s been rising far away as well, for instance, in britain.
The sources of ADHD are not well understood, although various theories have been offered, including paid research paper writing dietary, genetic, psychological, and social ones. In the past 2 decades, medical scientists have reported genetic susceptibilities to ADHD and discovered differences in brain imaging results from people with ADHD and folks without ADHD. Although bio-medical theories of ADHD predominate, the causes of ADHD are still largely unknown. Some contend that even when you will find biological differences when considering children with ADHD and other children, what exactly is observed might be a reflection of differences in temperament instead of a specific disorder.
ADHD and its treatment have been controversial at least since the 1970s.
Critics have expressed anxiety about the drugging of schoolchildren, contending that ADHD is simply a label for childhood deviant behavior. Others grant that some children may have a neurological disorder, but maintain that there has been an overdiagnosis of ADHD. Some educators and parents have raised concerns about adverse effects from long-term use of stimulant medications from time to time. Child psychiatrists see ADHD as the utmost common childhood psychiatric disorder and consider psychoactive medication treatment as well established and safe. Parent and consumer groups, such as CHADD (Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), have a tendency to support the medical perspective of ADHD.
Because the 1990s there’s been a rise that is significant the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD. Whereas childhood ADHD is usually parent or school identified, adult ADHD appears to be largely self-identified. Some researchers have noted that lots of apparently successful adults seek an ADHD diagnosis and medication treatment because of learning about the disorder from professionals, the media, or others, after which seeing their own life problems reflected when you look at the description of ADHD (e.g., disorganized life, inability to sustain attention, moving from job to job). Adult ADHD remains controversial, however. Many psychiatrists have embraced adult ADHD as a major problem that is social with claims of tens of huge amounts of dollars in lost productivity and household income because of the disorder, whereas critics have suggested it really is “the medicalization of underperformance.”
Sociologists view ADHD as a classic case regarding the medicalization of deviant behavior, defining a previously nonmedical problem as a medical one additionally the treatment of ADHD as a form of medical social control.
Whereas some have noticed that when a challenge becomes medicalized it is less stigmatized, because its origin is observed as physiological or biomedical rather than as connected to behavior that is volitional others point out the social consequences of medicalizing children’s behavior problems. Some have suggested that medicalizing behavior that is deviant ADHD individualizes complex social problems and allows for powerful forms of medical social control (medications) to be utilized. Secondary gain, accruing social advantages of a diagnosis that is medical is also an issue with ADHD. You can find reports of adolescents seeking an ADHD diagnosis to gain learning disability status in order to acquire certain benefits, such as untimed tests or alternative assignments. From a sociological view, this is of ADHD is a prime example of diagnostic expansion, the widening definition of a recognized diagnosis. For some, ADHD has become deemed a disorder that is lifelong with an expanding a long time for diagnosis (from preschool to adult) and a lowered threshold for psychoactive medication treatment. It is more likely that an increasing number of individuals are being identified, labeled, and treated as having ADHD although it is possible that the behaviors characteristic of ADHD are increasing because of some kind of social cause.